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Lars Farmer
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PART 2 - Battle of the Brandywine - A Historic Day for Old Kennett

Tea Time for Howe

As Stirling and Stephen formed their troops, they could see the British advancing over Osborne Hill less than a mile to their north. The Redcoats progressed slowly as "it was extremely difficult to move the artillery over the heights." Once the artillery had crested the hill, Howe ordered a break of a half-hour for lunch and tea. After marching for nearly eleven hours and 17 miles, Howe's troops were safe for the moment and took time to rest and refresh. Howe, as was his pattern, did not follow up on what might have turned into a rout; instead the picnicking general permitted the panicking Americans to form lines about a mile to his south.

Birmingham Meeting House

Meanwhile Brandywine Valley locals came to gawk at the British war machine. These included a group of Quakers who were holding their prayer meeting at a wheelwright's shop in Sconneltown. Two days earlier they had been evicted from their normal place of prayer, the Birmingham Meeting House, because Washington had taken over the building for use as an American hospital. Some meeting members went back home to protect their families and farms; others watched in awe. Captivated by the sight of the British army, was a Quaker teenager named Joseph Townsend who would march among the British soldiers in the afternoon, watch the battle into dusk, and be pressed into triage service carrying wounded from the battlefield that night. Townsend observed that Cornwallis made "a brilliant and martial appearance," and Howe "was a large and portly man, of coarse features. He appeared to have lost his teeth, as his mouth had fallen in."

After their tea break, the British broke their column into an eight-pronged attack in which they hoped to either outflank or overrun the American line. Meanwhile the Americans had tried to form a solid defensive line with the center at the heights around Birmingham Meeting House. They were thwarted in this attempt, in part because General Sullivan had marched his troops too far north and left a gap in the American line. Further complicating matters was the behavior of a proud French Brigadier General named Prudhomme DeBorre who insisted that he be given the position of honor of commanding the right of General Sullivan's Division. Parts of the American line were in disarray. The British launched a furious attack. The British scooped up several artillery pieces along the way.

While the Continental Army fought valiantly, the British attack was too overwhelming, and the Americans had to fall back to new defensive line 400 yards to the southwest.

The Second American Defense

The Americans rallied the scattered regiments into a second defensive line about 800 yards southwest of the initial encounter. Fierce fighting resumed.

"What excessive fatigue. A rapid march from four 0'clock in the morning till four in the eve, when we were engaged. Till dark we fought. Describe that battle. 'Twas not like those at Covent Garden or Drury Lane... There was the most infernal Fire of cannon and musquetry. Most incessant shouting, 'Incline to the right! Incline to the left! Halt! Charge!' etc. The balls ploughing up the ground. The trees cracking over one's head. The branches riven by the artillery. The leaves falling as in autumn by the grapeshot...A ball glanced about my ankle and contused it. For some days I was lifted on horseback in men's arms." -British captain

General Howe rode to Birmingham Hill from Osborne Hill and directed the battle from the newly taken eminence. The British launched a new line of attack.

The fighting here was the fiercest of the entire battle. The American line gave way five times, ever re-forming and pushed farther back. The officers "exerted themselves beyond description to keep up the troops morale," recalled Sullivan. "Five times did the enemy drive our troops from the hill, and as often was it regained, the summit often disputed muzzle to muzzle."

Where's Washington?

Washington had been receiving frantic messages from Sullivan concerning this new attack. Yet, Washington was skeptical - he still believed that only a fragment of the overall British force was attacking to the north. In the second of his required daily dispatches to Congress Washington explained that a "severe cannonade" was taking place to his north. "I suppose we shall have a very hot evening," he continued. But he was curiously absent. He still believed the main British force was with Knyphausen.

"Push Along, Old Man, Push On!"

At about 5 P.M., the noise of the cannon from the north combined with Knyphausen's relative inactivity on the west side of the creek finally convinced Washington that the main British force was indeed at Birmingham. He pressed a reluctant elderly farmer by the name of Joseph Brown into leading him over the shortest route to the battle. The elderly farmer demurred until an American officer dismounted ftom his horse and pointedly pointed the tip of his sword at Brown.

Brown led the way.

Brown raced Washington and his officers and at a breakneck pace for four miles. Washington urged them on jumping fences, hurtling ditches and urging the farmer "Push along, old man, push on!"

Following them were two divisions of Nathanael Greene which had been held in reserve. Greene's column moved at remarkable speed covering four miles in 45 minutes.

What Washington saw as he rode up was the Americans in retreat from Battle Hill. A soldier from New Jersey recalled, "We broke and Rallied and Rallied & broke from height to height till we fell on our main Army who reinforced us & about sunset we made a stand." This was Greene's Division.

Lafayette Is "Honoured"

At this point Lafayette rode up and did all he could to make the men charge at the point of a bayonet but the Americans, little used to this sort of fighting did not care to do so, and this brigade fled like the rest of the army. Then, amidst the confusion, Lafayette was wounded, as he would recount later in a letter to his wife: "the English honoured me with a musket ball, which slightly wounded me in the leg."

Greene opened his ranks to let the retreating Americans pass through and then re-formed his lines. Fierce fighting now took place in the area known as Sandy Hill. Charges and countercharges followed.

Back at Chadd's Ford Kynphausen Launches His Attack

While the Americans were fighting the British near Dilworth, they could hear cannon fire from the vicinity of Chadd's Ford. Knyphausen was attacking Wayne. If Wayne gave way, the British under Knyphausen would have a clear path to Greene's troops fighting the northern attackers.

Knyphausen had begun bombarding the Americans across the creek with heavy artillery. The Prussian general was supposed to hold his attack until he heard the sound of Howe firing two can non shots which was the signal that the northern troops had forded the river successfully. Regardless, at 4:00 P.M., Knyphausen began a frontal attack without the signal.

Fortunately for Knyphausen, American brigades under Generals Green and Nash had just been sent north to reinforce the American lines at Birmingham. Knyphausen sent his men across the Brandywine at several different fording spots, with four regiments alone crossing at Brinton's Ford. Knyphausen's main column pushed through at Chadd's Ford in the face of heavy American resistance. A smaller British force moved south, and crossed the creek probably at Gibson's Ford, which threatened the American militia posted farther south at Pyle's Ford.

The Americans fought with verve -- despite being outnumbered. They might have been able to endure the attack had not another British regiment -- who had gotten lost earlier in the day at Birmingham Hill -- entered the fray. These British Guards and Grenadier Brigades were supposed to have been part of the British force that attacked Sullivan's second line of defense at Battle Hill. Instead, they became tangled and lost in the thickets of Wistar's Woods, which allowed Sullivan's men to hold their ground longer than they might have.

After a couple hours, these lost troops emerged serendipitously to the rear of Wayne's artillery position. Now, Wayne had to shift some of his men to defend against this new menace.

The British pushed the outflanked Americans back to the Chadd House where the Widow Chadd remained and staunchly defended her property.

Ultimately, the British got the best of Wayne's men in a spirited duel. Besieged by the bayonets of the British 71 st Battalion and the Queens Rangers, the Americans turned tail toward Chester, leaving their artillery behind. Eleven guns were abandoned by the Americans including two cannon which had been captured from the Hessians during Washington's surprise attack of Trenton after crossing of the Delaware on Christmas Day 1776.

Among those besieging the British was Patrick Ferguson of Ferguson's Rifleman. It was near the Chadd House that the inventor of the breech loading rifle was wounded, which may have an effect on the war.

A Great Save

Edward Hector, a negro private in the 3rd Pennsylvania Artillery, valiantly saved a few wagon loads of ammunition and arms in the tumult. But most of the equipment was left behind. Fortunately, Washington had ordered the baggage removed to Chester the day before, so at least that was safe.

Wayne posted a small brigade armed with four cannon at Painter's Crossroads to cover the troops retreating toward Chester. They kept the main road to Chester open not only for Wayne's retreating men, but Nash's North Carolinians, and the rear guard of Sullivan's troops who were falling back from Dilworth.

Greene's Men Dig In

Greene's men held the Sandy Hollow area. Fighting under Greene was Brigadier General, Peter Muhlenberg, a Lutheran minister who had once served in the Prussian army. As he rode along the defensive line rallying the Virginia troops, he was recognized by some Hessians who called him by his nickname, "Devil Pete." Though the Americans fought well they were forced back. An aide- de-camp to General Howe wrote, "By six o'clock our left wing still had not been able to advance. Here the rebels fought very bravely and did not retreat until they heard in their rear General Knyphausen's fire coming nearer." The Rebels found themselves between two fires. This probably caused them to leave their strong post and retreat from their right wing on the Road to Chester. After warring for nearly two hours the outnumbered Americans began to give way.

Surprise Party

At about 7:30, some of General Weedon's men and North Carolina troops under Brigadier General Nash surprised Howe's troops and put a damper on the British victory party. They had come on in the rear and drew up in a semicircle just north and west of the Dilworth Crossroads. Here they surprised Howe's victorious troops who had just taken the field from Greene.

"The heat of the Action fell chiefly on the 64th Regt who suffered considerably, enduring with the utmost steadiness a very heavy fire, which lasted till Dark, when the Rebels retreated in great Panick taking the road to Chester."

The American's last stand was supported by Casimir Pulaski who led a stunning cavalry charge. Pulaski had been present at Brandywine as an observer but received Washington's permission to organize a group of horseman into an ad hoc unit. It was not enough and the Americans retreated toward Chester.

This last American foray probably convinced Howe that it would be too dangerous to try and follow the Americans for a night time knockout. Besides which, the day had been exhausting. Howe's troops marched 17 miles in 11 hours, and had fought three pitched battle in the space of six hours. A British lieutenant pointedly summed up the rigors the British had been recently exposed to: "We had the Honour & with our Fire closed the Day. The Fatigue of the Day were excessive; some of our best Men were obliged to yield, one of the 33 dropped dead [of heat stroke] nor had we even Daylight, we could not make any thing of a pursuit. If you knew the weight a poor Soldier carries, the length of time he is obliged to be on foot for a train of Artillery to move 17 miles, the Duties he goes thro' when near an Enemy, that the whole night of the 9th we were marching, you would say we had done our Duty on the 11 to beat an Army strongly posted, numerous & unfatigued."

Major John Andre, in a businesslike manner, summed up the battle from the British point of view: "General Knyphausen, as was preconcerted, passed the ford upon hearing the column engaged, and the troops under him pushed the enemy with equal success. Night and the fatigue the soldiers had undergone prevented any pursuit. It is remarkable that after reconnoitering after the action, the right of General Howe's camp was found close on General Knyphausen's left, and nearly in a line, and in forming the general camp next day scarce any alteration was made."

British Casualties

Casualties at Brandywine were strewn across a 10-square mile area of the battlefield, making final determinations particularly difficult. General Howe in his official report to Parliament counted: 90 killed, 488 wounded and 6 missing in action. Howe, once again clearly underestimated casualty figures. Before the Battle of Germantown, an adjutant in the British army reckoned British killed and wounded at 1,976. This is the exact same number arrived at by Jacob Hitzheimer, a civilian at Brandywine who recorded the number of British wounded in a diary entry. Some reports have the Queens Rangers losing 290 out of 480 men, while Ferguson's Riflemen suffered 46 casualties out of 80.

The 2nd Light Infantry and 2nd British Guards who were involved in some of the fiercest fighting at Brandywine (including hand-to-hand combat) are listed as having lost 612 of 1,740 troops.

American Casualties

Major General Greene estimated American losses at 1,200 men. He also reported the loss of 10 irreplaceable cannon and a Howitzer. A Hessian officer listed the American casualty and captured rate at 1,300. An American officer under Brigadier General Nash reported British losses at 1,960 and the Americans at 700

This article was reprinted from the February 2006 Edition of the Empire Patriot Newsletter Published By the Empire State Society of the SAR.

August 1, 2010 at 4:39 PM Flag Quote & Reply

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